• Conlin, P. L., H. J. Goldsby, E. Libby, K. G. Skocelas, W. C. Ratcliff, C. Ofria, B. Kerr (2023) Division of labor promotes the entrenchment of multicellularity. bioRxiv 2023.03.15.532780 (DOI) (PDF)
  • McGee, R. S., O. Kosterlitz, A. Kaznatcheev, B. Kerr, C. T. Bergstrom (2022) The cost of information acquisition by natural selection. bioRxiv 2022.07.02.498577 (DOI) (PDF)
  • Kosterlitz, O., N. Grassi, B. Werner, R. S. McGee, E. M. Top, B. Kerr (2022) Evolutionary crowdsourcing: alignment of fitness landscapes allows cross-species adaptation of a horizontally transferred gene. bioRxiv 2022.09.13.507827 (DOI) (PDF)
  • van Raay,K., S. Stolyar, J. Sevigny, A. Muñiz Tirado, J. Draghi, R. E. Lenski, C. J. Marx, B. Kerr, L. Zaman (2021) Evolution with private resources reverses some changes from long-term evolution with public resources. bioRxiv 2021.07.11.451942 (DOI) (PDF)


  • Freeman, S. et al. (2023) A CURE on the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Improves Student Conceptual Understanding. CBE--Life Sciences Education 22 (1) (PDF)


  • Kosterlitz, O., A. Muñiz Tirado, C. Wate, C. Elg, I. Bozic, E. M. Top, B. Kerr (2022) Estimating the transfer rates of bacterial plasmids with an adapted Luria–Delbrück fluctuation analysis. PLoS Biology 20(7): e3001732. (PDF)
  • Gupta, A., L. Zaman, H. M. Strobel, J. Gallie, A. R. Burmeister, B. Kerr, E. S. Tamar, R. Kishony, J. R. Meyer (2022) Host-parasite coevolution promotes innovation through deformations in fitness landscapes. eLife 11:e76162 (PDF)


  • Wargo, A. R., G. Kurath, R. J. Scott, B. Kerr (2021) Virus shedding kinetics and unconventional virulence tradeoffs. PLoS Pathogens 17 (5) (DOI) (PDF)
  • Isaksson, H., P.L. Conlin, B. Kerr, W.C. Ratcliff, E. Libby (2021) The consequences of budding versus binary fission on adaptation and aging in primitive multicellularity. Genes 12, 661. (DOI) (PDF)


  • Goldsby, H., B. Kerr, & C. Ofria (2020) "Major transitions in digital evolution." "Evolution in Action: Past, Present and Future." Eds. W. Banzhaf et al. Springer International Publishing, 333-347. (Link)
  • Tanaka, M., P. Godfrey-Smith, & B. Kerr (2020) The dual landscape model of adaptation and niche construction. Philosophy of Science (Link)
  • Jordt, H., T. Stalder, O. Kosterlitz, J. M. Ponciano, E. M. Top & B. Kerr (2020) Coevolution of host–plasmid pairs facilitates the emergence of novel multidrug resistance. Nature Ecology & Evolution: (DOI) (PDF)
  • Stalder, T., B. Cornwell, J. Lacroix, B. Kohler, S. Dixon, H. Yano, B. Kerr, L. J. Forney, & E. M. Top (2020) Evolving populations in biofilms contain more persistent plasmids. Molecular Biology and Evolution: (DOI) (PDF)


  • Godfrey-Smith, P. & B. Kerr (2019) Tolerance: A hierarchical analysis. Journal of Political Philosophy 27: 403-421. (link)


  • Chisholm, R. H., B. D. Connelly, B. Kerr, M. M. Tanaka (2018) The role of pleiotropy in the evolutionary maintenance of positive niche construction. American Naturalist 192 (link)


  • Singhal, S., C. M. Leon Guerrero, S. G. Whang, E. M. McClure, H. G. Busch, B. Kerr (2017) Adaptations of an RNA virus to increasing thermal stress. PLoS ONE 12: (e0189602). (PDF)
  • Nahum, J. R., J. D. West, B. A. Althouse, L. Zaman, C. Ofria, and B. Kerr (2017) Improved adaptation in exogenously and endogenously changing environments. Proceedings of European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL), 14: 306-313. (PDF)
  • Kokko, H., A. Chaturvedi, D. Croll, M. C. Fischer, F. Guillaume, S. Karrenberg, B. Kerr, G. Rolshausen, and J. Stapley. (2017) Can Evolution Supply What Ecology Demands? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 32: 187–197. (PDF)
  • Wargo, A. R., R. J. Scott, B. Kerr, and G. Kurath. (2017) Replication and shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in juvenile rainbow trout. Virus Research 227: 200-211. (PDF)


  • Cooper, J. and B. Kerr (2016) Evolution at ‘sutures’ and ‘centers’: recombination can aid adaptation of spatially structured populations on rugged fitness landscapes. PLoS Computational Biology (PDF)
  • Libby*, E., P. L. Conlin*, B. Kerr, W. C. Ratcliff (2016) Stabilizing multicellularity through ratcheting. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371: 20150444. (PDF)
  • van Raay, K. and B. Kerr (2016) Toxins go viral: phage-encoded lysis releases group B colicins. Environmental Microbiology 18: 1308–1311. (PDF)
  • Estrela, S., B. Kerr, and J. J. Morris (2016) Transitions in individuality through symbiosis. Current Opinion in Microbiology 31: 191–198. (PDF)
  • Hammarlund*, S. P., B. D. Connelly*, K. J. Dickinson, and B. Kerr (2016) The evolution of cooperation by the Hankshaw effect. Evolution 70: 1376–1385. (PDF)
  • Connelly, B. D., K. J. Dickinson, S. P. Hammarlund, and B. Kerr (2016) Negative niche construction favors the evolution of cooperation. Evolutionary Ecology 30:267–283. (PDF)
  • Estrela, S., J. J. Morris, and B. Kerr (2016) Private benefits and metabolic conflicts shape the emergence of microbial interdependencies. Environmental Microbiology 18, 1415–1427. (PDF)


  • Miner, B. E., P. M. Kulling, K. D. Beer, and B. Kerr (2015) Divergence in DNA photorepair efficiency among genotypes from contrasting UV radiation environments in nature. Molecular Ecology 24: 6177–6187. (PDF)
  • Heilmann, S., S. Krishna, and B. Kerr (2015) Why do bacteria regulate public goods by quorum sensing?—How the shapes of cost and benefit functions determine the form of optimal regulation. Frontiers in Microbiology 6: 1-11. (PDF)
  • Cooper, J. D., C. Neuhauser, A. M. Dean, and B. Kerr (2015) Tipping the mutation–selection balance: Limited migration increases the frequency of deleterious mutants. Journal of Theoretical Biology 380: 123-133. (PDF)
  • Bergstrom, C. and B. Kerr (2015) Microbiology: Taking the bad with the good. Nature (PDF) (Focal Article) (Supplemental Model)
  • Nahum, J. R., P. Godfrey-Smith, B. N. Harding, J. H. Marcus, J. Carlson-Stevermer, and B. Kerr (2015) A tortoise–hare pattern seen in adapting structured and unstructured populations suggests a rugged fitness landscape in bacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 112: 7530–7535. (PDF) (Commentary) (News Item)


  • Hammerschmidt, K., C. Rose, B. Kerr, P. Rainey (2014) Life cycles, fitness decoupling and the evolution of multicellularity. Nature 515: 75-79. (PDF) (News Item)
  • Conlin, P., J. Chandler, B. Kerr (2014) Games of life and death: antibiotic resistance and production through the lens of evolutionary game theory. Current Opinion in Microbiology 21: 35-44. (PDF)
  • Libby, E., W. Ratcliff, M. Travisano, B. Kerr (2014) Geometry shapes evolution of early multicellularity. PLoS Computational Biology 10(9): e1003803. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003803 (PDF) (News Item)
  • Goldsby HJ, Knoester DB, Kerr B, Ofria C (2014) The effect of conflicting pressures on the evolution of division of labor. PLoS ONE 9(8): e102713. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102713 (PDF)
  • Goldsby H.J., D.B. Knoester, C. Ofria and B. Kerr. 2014. The evolutionary origin of somatic cells under the dirty work hypothesis. PLoS Biology 12 (5): e1001858. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001858 (PDF) (Dryad Data Deposit) (PLoS Synopsis) (News Item) (Blog Post by Sedeer el-Showk) (Blog Post at Biophilia)



  • Goldsby, H., A. Dornhaus, B. Kerr and C. Ofria. 2012. Task-switching costs promote the evolution of division of labor and shifts in individuality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 109: 13686–13691 (PDF)
  • Goldsby, H., T. Pierce, F. Dyer, B. Kerr and C. Ofria. 2012. The evolution of temporal polyethism. Artificial Life 13: 178-185 (PDF)
  • Fox, J. W. and B. Kerr. 2012. Analyzing the effects of species gain and loss on ecosystem function using the extended Price equation partition. Oikos 121: 290-298 (PDF)


  • Nahum, J. R., B. N. Harding and B. Kerr. 2011. Evolution of restraint in a structured rock-paper-scissors community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 108: 10831-10838 (PDF) (Supporting Information) (Wiki Supplement)
  • Kerr, B. and J. Nahum. 2011. Setting the stage for an egalitarian major transition: The evolution of restraint. For—The Major Transitions Revisited: The Evolution of Individuality Eds. K. Sterelny & B. Calcott. (Link)
  • Rainey, P. and B. Kerr. 2011. Conflicts among levels of selection as fuel for the evolution of individuality. For—The Major Transitions Revisited: The Evolution of Individuality Eds. K. Sterelny & B. Calcott. (Link)
  • Miner, B. and B. Kerr. 2011. Adaptation to local ultraviolet radiation conditions among neighbouring Daphnia populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278:1306-1313 (PDF) (Supplement)
  • Majeed, H., O. Gillor, B. Kerr and M. Riley. 2011. Competitive interactions in Escherichia coli populations: the role of bacteriocins. The ISME Journal.  5: 71–81. (PDF


  • Eshelman, C., R. Vouk, J. Stewart, E. Halsne, H. Lindsey, S. Schneider, M. Gualu, A. Dean and B. Kerr. 2010. Unrestricted migration favours virulent pathogens in experimental metapopulations: Evolutionary genetics of a rapacious life history. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 365: 2503-2513. (PDF) (Supplement)
  • Rainey, P. and B. Kerr. 2010. Cheats as first propagules: a new hypothesis for the evolution of individuality during the transition from single cells to multicellularity. Bioessays. 32: 872–880. (PDF)


  • Prado, F., T. Billo, and B. Kerr. 2009. Introgression of sexually selected traits in lek-mating species. Evolutionary Ecology Research 11: 1235-1250. (PDF)
  • Godfrey-Smith, P. and B. Kerr. 2009. Selection in ephemeral networks. American Naturalist 174: 906-911. (PDF)
  • Prado, F., A. Sheih, J. West, and B. Kerr. 2009. Coevolutionary cycling of host sociality and pathogen virulence in contact networks. Journal of Theoretical Biology 261: 561-569. (PDF)
  • Dunlap, A., C. McLinn, H. MacCormick, M. Scott, and B. Kerr. 2009. Why some memories don’t last a lifetime: Optimal long-term recall in changing environments. Behavioral Ecology 20: 1096-1105. (PDF)
  • Kerr, B. 2009. "Theoretical and experimental approaches to the evolution of altruism and the levels of selection." Experimental Evolution: Concepts, Methods, and Applications of Selection Experiments. Eds. T. Garland & M. R. Rose. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 585-630. (PDF)
  • Gobush, K., B. Kerr, and S. Wasser. 2009. Genetic relatedness and disrupted social structure in a poached population of African elephants. Molecular Ecology 18: 722-734. (PDF)
  • Kerr, B., and P. Godfrey-Smith. 2009. Generalization of the Price equation for evolutionary change. Evolution 63:531-536. (PDF)


  • Prado, F., and B. Kerr. 2008. The evolution of restraint in bacterial biofilms under nontransitive competition. Evolution 62: 538-548. (PDF)
  • Nahum, J., and B. Kerr. 2008. Optimal foraging: A bird in the hand released. Current Biology 18: R385-R386. (PDF)
  • Kerr, B., J. D. West, B. J. M. Bohannan. 2008. "Bacteriophages: Models for exploring basic principles of ecology." Bacteriophage ecology: Population growth, evolution, and impact of bacterial viruses. Ed. S. T. Abedon. Cambridge, U.K.: University Press, 31-63. (Link)
  • Bergstrom, C., B. Kerr, and M. Lachmann. 2008. "Building trust by wasting time." Moral Markets. Ed. P. J. Zak. Oxfordshire: Princeton University Press, 142-153. (Link)


  • Kerr, B. 2007. Niche construction and cognitive evolution. Biological Theory 2: 250-262. (PDF)
  • Kerr, B. 2007. "The ecological and evolutionary dynamics of model bacteriocin communities." Bacteriocins: Ecology and Evolution. Ed. M.A. Riley and M. A. Chavan. Heidelberg: Springer, 111-134. (PDF)


  • Kerr, B., C. Neuhauser, B. J. M. Bohannan, and A. M. Dean. 2006. Local migration promotes competitive restraint in a host-pathogen ‘tragedy of the commons’. Nature 442: 75-78. (PDF) (Supplemental Material) (News Item)


  • Stephens, D. W., B. Kerr, and E. Fernández-Juricic. 2004. Impulsiveness without discounting: The ecological rationality hypothesis. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B 271: 2459-2465 (PDF) (Supplemental Material)
  • Kerr, B. 2004. The Caucas-race of the Dodo: A review of Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. Biology and Philosophy 19: 781-799. (PDF)
  • Fernández-Juricic, E., B. Kerr, P. A. Bednekoff, and D. W. Stephens. 2004. When are two heads better than one? Visual perception and information transfer affect the value of vigilance coordination in foraging groups. Behavioral Ecology 15: 898-906. (PDF)
  • Jessup, C., R. Kassen, S. E. Forde, B. Kerr, A. Buckling, P. B. Rainey, and B. J. M. Bohannan. 2004. Asking big questions of small worlds: Microbial model systems in ecological research. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19: 189-197. (PDF)
  • Kerr, B., P. Godfrey-Smith and M. W. Feldman. 2004. What is altruism? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19: 135-140. (PDF)


  • Kerr, B., and M. W. Feldman. 2003. Carving the cognitive niche: Optimal learning strategies in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. Journal of Theoretical Biology 220: 169-188. (PDF)


  • Kerr, B., M. A. Riley, M. W. Feldman, and B. J. M. Bohannan. 2002. Local dispersal promotes biodiversity in a real-life game of rock-paper-scissors. Nature 418 (11): 171-174. (PDF) (Commentary)
  • Bohannan, B. J. M., B. Kerr, C. Jessup, J. Hughes, and G. Sandvik. 2002. Trade-offs and coexistence in microbial microcosms. Antonie von Leeuvenhoek 81: 107-115. (PDF)
  • Kerr, B. and P. Godfrey-Smith. 2002. On individualist and multi-level perspectives on selection in structured populations. Biology and Philosophy 17: 477-517. (PDF)
  • Kerr, B. and P. Godfrey-Smith. 2002. On Price's equation and average fitness. Biology and Philosophy 17: 551-565. (PDF) (Commentary)
  • Godfrey-Smith, P. and B. Kerr. 2002. Group fitness and multi-level selection: Replies to commentaries. Biology and Philosophy 17: 539-550. (PDF)
  • Schwilk, D. W. and B. Kerr. 2002. Genetic niche-hiking: An alternative explanation for the evolution of flammability. Oikos 99: 431-442. (PDF)


  • Aoki, K., M. W. Feldman, and B. Kerr. 2001. Models of sexual selection on a quantitative genetic trait when preference is acquired by sexual imprinting. Evolution 55: 25-32. (PDF)


  • Kerr, B., D. W. Schwilk, A. Bergman, and M. W. Feldman. 1999. Rekindling an old flame: A haploid model for the evolution and impact of flammability in resprouting plants. Evolutionary Ecology Research 1: 807-833. (PDF)